Congenital Heart Disease -

Birth defects of the heart in children, many amongst them may present for the first time later in life, are divided into three categories:

1 - Obstructive heart defects which includes congenital aortic stenosis, coarctation of aorta
2 - Simple holes (abnormal communication) in the heart like ASD, VSD, PDA
3 - Blue babies (TOF, TAPVC, TGA, pulmonary atresia & tricuspid atresia)

Reason -
Majority of the birth defects are correctable and patients can lead a normal life thereafter, while others are palliated to enable them to lead a symptom free life.

How is it done -
Certain operations like repair of PDA and coarctation of aorta are done by opening the chest wall from the side (thoracotomy), and are also known as closed heart operations. While defects like TOF, VSD, TAPVC, pulmonary atresia, Aortic stenosis, repair is done with the help of covediopulmonary bypass (heart lung) machine. Such operations are known as open heart-operation.

When is it Done -
Simple heart holes like PDA/VSD/ASD should be closed within first year of life, while obstructive lessons should be corrected whenever they are diagnosed. Out of the blue baby category TOF,TAPVC, single ventricle should be repaired with in 3-6 month while TGA/Truncus arteriosus should be operated within first 30 days of their life.